Hurtado wants to show in this paper that the Qumran sect was a group that had a combined belief that history was significant, with a strong hope for the future. This attitude can be demonstrated to be similar to that of the Gospels. This gives strong support for believing that the earliest Christians could have had both strong apocalyptic hopes and an interest in the historical Jesus.
Mormonism states that in the year 1820 Joseph Smith was stirred by a religious revival that broke out in the vicinity of Palmyra. This paper considers a second account of Smith's first vision that has been given more careful study. The author believes it will force upon Mormon writers a serious re-evaluation of the foundation of their church.
Culver reflects on a number of exegetical matters in Matthew 28:16-20. For example, he wants to ascertain to whom the promise was given, and what is meant by "all power."
How was the Old Testament canon formed? Historic Christianity insists that the Old Testament books were written by divine inspiration. The claim here is that the Scriptures are inherently authoritative because God is the origin, and the church merely recognizes this fact. Harris evaluates different theories about how that process of canon formation took place.
Justin Martyr has the honour of being the first comprehensive Christian interpreter of the Old Testament. What was Justin's exegetical method? Aune indicates the gap between the New Testament's use of the Old and the exegesis in early patristic literature. The further Justin departed from the New Testament exegetical tradition, the closer he got to allegory.
One way of seeking communication from the gods of the Canaanites was by ecstatic frenzy. Some scholars believe that Israel learned it from the Canaanites and made it a part of their service. They believe that Israel's former prophets were ecstatics. Evidence is sought in the Old Testament especially from three passages: Numbers 11:25-29, 1 Samuel 10:1-13, and 1 Samuel 19:18-24.
Bertrand Russell acquired fame through his prolific writings and his outspokenness. This essay gives a more detailed critique that the author felt was badly needed in order to prevent students from naively accepting Russell as an authority on religion. Weigel aims to subject Russel's religious writings to rigorous analysis.
Young wants to account for the origin of Psalm 139.
Does Paul's teaching in Ephesians 3 concerning "mystery" conflict with the Reformed confessions' view of the unity of the covenant of grace? The purpose of the author is to survey the meaning of the word "musterion" in secular and Jewish literature, including the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the writings of the Apostle Paul.
Existentialism's view of the individual is sometimes claimed to be similar to the views of Augustine. In this essay Lewis evaluates such claims by comparing the thought of Augustine with that of contemporary existentialists. Lewis introduces Paul Tillich's distinctions between an existential point of view, an existential philosophy, and an existential attitude (involvement).
The order of the arrangement of the content of the book of Jeremiah can be perplexing. This study attempts to articulate certain basic assumptions that distinguish evangelicalism's approach to the organization of the prophecy, and to analyze the evidence by which its chapters may be dated. Payne proceeds to formulate a chronological picture of the sequence of the different parts and proposes an explanation for the present arrangement of the book.
What is history? The author argues that it is a science in that it asks questions of the past, and an art in that it is a recording of events in an interesting way. The data of the historian is thus a composite of fact and evaluation. Historians cannot avoid the questions of philosophy. The author reflects on the meaning of history.
The phenomenon described by the term "glossolalia" played a significant role in the early church. The author of this paper analyzes this phenomenon. He tries to answer two questions: what experiences of the early church are to be included in this phenomenon? and what is the significance and relevance of these phenomena in the life of the early church?
This paper deals with the issue of the significance of our understanding of history for the Christian faith. The question Ladd deals with is whether there is a dimension of factual historical reality which lies outside of history. Ladd argues that there is such a sphere, which can be designated "Geschichte," for "Historie" he understands by definition to be secular, unbelieving history.
Turner reflects on the date, origin, purpose, and authorship of the Gospel of John.
The paper argues that the silence of the New Testament on the slavery question can be understood by noting the essentially worthwhile character of slavery during this period. Modern thinking about slavery has too often been influenced by superimposing the viciousness, perpetual bondage, and race hatred of slavery in past centuries on conditions in the Roman world.
Greek ideas and expressions have exercised an unmistakable influence on the wisdom literature and notably the Greek translation of Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes. This paper compares the differences between the Masoretic text and the Septuagint, and forms conclusions on the attitudes of the translator that may have led to differences.
In the early 1960s Rudolf Bultmann was arguably the most influential theologian in Germany. It is imperative to attempt to understand Bultmann's theology. This paper is such an attempt. It focuses on understanding the paradox at the heart of Bultmann's theology, i.e., the place where God acts is in the sphere of human existence. How should we understand this language of the "act of God"?
According to the Scriptures there is a continual struggle between the old and new nature within every converted man. Perfectionism teaches that it is possible for a Christian in this life to attain to a state of sinless perfection. This article reaffirms the inescapability of the struggle between the two natures, and describes the character of the struggle.
The function and meaning of the word "Sheol" is important in biblical theology. Its relevance for an understanding of passages like 1 Peter 3:20 and Ephesians 4:8 is indicated. Further, a comparison is made with the New Testament's use of "hades." The meaning of Sheol is explored still more by comparing a number of its occurrences in the Old Testament.
Do the social sciences form a threat to the Christian faith? In this essay Moberg discusses five ways in which the social sciences can help Christians become more effective servants of Jesus Christ.
This is a short exegetical note on the translation of John 10:16.
Is there any hope for those who never heard the gospel? In this essay Baker affirms that the Scriptures teach that salvation is by faith in God, and mediated through Jesus Christ. The author wants to look at safeguards against the dangers of unwarranted inferences from this. He wants his readers to be wary of speaking carelessly about the hope we have.
How should the exodus of the Israelites be dated? It is an old problem in Biblical Studies. Rea discusses different solutions that have been considered in the past.
Hermeneutics should not be divorced from the study of language in general. The Bible is written in human language by men who used the language conventions of the day. This essay focuses on the way in which figures of speech and figurative language function in texts. The author notes similes, metaphors, allegory, metonymy, irony, and so on.
Ramm's thesis in this essay is that the fundamental theistic belief of the Bible is laid in the Old Testament, and whoever wishes to formulate a biblical theism must start there. The basis for a Christian apologetic must be found in the Old Testament.
According to Stonehouse's judgment there is an intimate connection between maintaining the infallibility of Scripture and making progress in the evangelical faith. He argues that the more clearly and consistently the infallibility of Scripture is upheld, the more assurance there will be of genuine advance in the field of biblical and theological studies.