Romans 9:17-18 has been a key text throughout church history for debates concerning predestination, reprobation, and free will. How should we understand the hardening of Pharaoh's heart? Beale attempts to reflect on these issues through an exegesis of each hardening passage in Exodus 4 to Exodus 14. Only brief comment is made about Romans 9 at the conclusion of the discussion.
In this article on reprobation, the author discusses the fact that God passes by sinners, preterition, and the hardening of hearts. The author also talks about the love of God and the hate of God, the mercy of God, and reprobation and the zeal for missions. Romans 9:13-24 is also discussed in this article.