This essay attempts to explain the belief that the death of Christ on the cross had the character of penal substitution, and that it was by virtue of this fact that it brought salvation to mankind. First, the author clears up some questions of method. He then continues to explore what it means to call Christ's death substitutionary.
This article considers the unity of the Trinity in Christ's command to baptize disciples.
The article featured here centres on the doctrine of justification by faith and its place in the life of the church. The article traces the emergence of its prominence in the church of the Reformation. Further, the article considers the need for justification, the meaning of justification (including imputation of righteousness), and faith as the means of justification.
This article aims to help us know and assess Satan so that we are better equipped to fight him effectively. It gives a portrait of Satan, including his mentality and tools, but also speaks of the fact that he is captive, and we have weapons to use against him.
What did the biblical writers mean when they spoke of faith? In Chapter 1 the author reflects on what the character and nature of this faith in the prophets, apostles, and other writers refers to. He also includes some questions for study and discussion.
How do we know there will be the resurrection of the dead? Jesus Christ's resurrection is the assurance of the resurrection for all. This article looks at how people will be raised, and the place of believers and unbelievers in the resurrection.
The Bible clearly teaches the reality of the second coming of Christ. This article looks at the nature and purpose of his coming.
What is the unpardonable sin? This article explains.
Perseverance of the saints is the doctrine that those who are saved will persevere to the end because they are preserved by Christ. This article explains how this works.
This article explains how the world is defined in the Bible. The article points to the world's created order but also its godless order. It also explains the role of the church and Christians in the world.
God created the family to be place of teaching and learning about God and godliness. This article explains how this is achieved in the home.
Spiritual gifts are given by the Holy Spirit to every member of Christ's church for the nurturing of the church. This article explains different ministries in the church, type of gifts, and the responsibility of every believer.
Mission work is accomplished through words and deeds. This article explains how the two relate.
The office of elder is what Christ uses to shepherd his church. This article explains the elder's role.
This article explains the origin, authority, and function of the apostles.
The kingdom of God touches on the purposes of God, has impact for the church, and is still coming. This is what the article explains.
Prayer is fellowship with God. It is a response to listening to God. This article explains the nature of prayer and its relation to the sovereignty of God
One can say that the Christian's full-time employment is to please God. This is what is at the heart of godliness. This is what the article explains.
Love is the hallmark of the Christian life, as this article.
Antinomianism is the denial of the use of God's law in the Christian life. This article discusses five faces of antinomianism.
Legalism is the biggest threat to the Christian life. Why? Let the article explain.
Christian liberty points to the reality that Christians have been set free from sin, law, and superstition. Let the article explain.
Repentance describes the change that happens in the believer that leads to living a new life. This article explains it.
If you believe is Christ you are a child of God. This is the truth of adoption. This is what the article explains.
How is it possible that people can be converted? Effectual calling is what explains the reality of conversion. This article explains it.
This article answers four questions about salvation: What is salvation? What are we saved from? How are we saved? For what are we saved?
This article looks at the deity and work of the Holy Spirit.
The article explains the atonement of Christ whereby he gave satisfaction for sin and restored a broken relationship.
Jesus Christ is the Mediator between God and man. This article explains what it means that Christ is the Mediator, as well as the nature of his work.
The Bible presents Jesus sitting at the right hand of the Father. This article shows that this has to do with Christ's authority and rule.
The ascension expresses to us Christ's omnipresence and his heavenly ministry. This article explains.
The transfiguration was a revelation of Christ's deity and his work of redemption. How? This article explains.
Why was Jesus baptized? The baptism of Jesus was a sign that he was identifying himself with us. How? This article explains.
Jesus' teachings pointed to the Father, to people's need, and to his own role. This article discusses the nature of the teachings of Christ and the three themes flowing from them.
The virgin birth expresses the reality that Jesus was conceived through the Holy Spirit not as a result of a sexual relationship. This article gives a biblical explanation of this mystery.
Jesus is fully divine and man. This article explains the two natures of Christ.
Incarnation is the doctrine that seeks to explain the human nature of Christ. This article gives a biblical account of this teaching.
Worship is a response given to God based on who he is as revealed in the Scriptures and through his deeds. This article shows how God ordered worship in the Old and New Testaments.
This article explains the covenant of grace from the Old Testament to its fulfillment in Christ.
Humans are created in the image of God. This article highlights five things that explain the nature of man, and shows how the fall destroyed this image.
Demons are spiritual beings that are corrupt and hostile to God and man, with Satan as their chief. This article explains their nature and activity.
Angels are spiritual beings created by God. This article explains their origin and place in God's plan of salvation.
The best way to summarize the biblical teaching on miracles is through the words "wonder, mighty work, and sign." This article explains them.
God's providence is God's work in preserving and governing all his creatures and their actions. God is completely in charge. This article explains the truth of this doctrine and its meaning for Christians.
"Mystery" in this article refers to the creature's inability to comprehend either the being or the actions of the Creator. Does it mean we cannot know God at all? Let the article explain.
The holiness of God sets him apart from us and makes him an object of awe, adoration, and dread. The article shows the link between his holiness and his justice and purity.
God is one, existing in three persons. This biblical teaching is called the doctrine of the Trinity. This article explains it.
"Omniscience" describes the reality that God knows everything, and also sees everything. What does this mean for you life? The article explains.
What the church historically has deemed to be essential for the nurturing of the church, is today neglected. What could that be? This article answers this question by pointing to catechesis.
For preaching to be effective, the preacher needs to understand the paradigms surrounding him. This article shows that there is a paradigm shift that preaching must take into consideration in three themes: God, man, and godliness. Understanding this shift is crucial for the faithfulness and effectiveness of preaching.
Preaching is the event of God bringing to an audience a Bible-based, Christ-centred, life-impacting message of instruction through the words of a spokesperson. This article gives five factors that undermine the credibility of such preaching. It looks at what should constitute authority in preaching and what are the things that hinder such authority.
In order to give a theological reflection on Neo-Pentecostalism or the charismatic movement, this article gives five characteristics that characterizes the movement, twelve affirmations that the movement seeks to stand for, and ten defects within the movement. This article explains them all. This is part one of the reflection; please also read part two for a complete reflection.
In order for true unity and ecumenicity to exist within the churches, there needs to be a convincing confession of faith. This article looks at the role confessions and creeds play in shaping such unity of churches. Attention is given to the need for confessions, the problems and challenges of adopting confessions, and the method for formulating them.
The work of the Holy Spirit in relation to the local church is that he creates the local church, animates it, brings order within it, and causes growth. These are principle taught from 1 Corinthians 12-1 Corinthians 14 on the work of the Holy Spirit in the local church. This is what the article explains.
Does the church need reformation today? This article shows that at times the call for reformation is directed by thinking that the Reformation itself was about getting doctrine, church order, and liturgy straight. Yet there is more to the Reformation than this, which the article also demonstrates.
Does the sovereignty of God kill the need for evangelism? Looking at the relationship between the sovereignty of God and evangelism, this article shows both the negative and positive aspect of thinking about this relationship. It shows that God's sovereignty should offer hope for success in evangelism.
What makes a revival? Jonathan Edwards gave a biblical reflection of this. However, to understand the answer of Edwards, we must understand the man himself, his understanding of God and how God works to reveal his glory. It is the view of God that shaped Edwards's understanding of revival. The article discusses this while pointing to crucial elements that constitute a revival.
What is it that makes one an evangelical? This article shows that the answer comes in two ways: the historicity of the evangelical identity, and the New Testament teaching of what makes one a Christian.
A profile of evangelicalism can be explained in six principles: their view on Holy Scripture, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, conversion, evangelism, and Christian fellowship. Based on this the article discusses the relationship between evangelicalism and tradition, and the hindrances to true evangelical fellowship.
How does God bring us to understand him, and to comprehend the world of spiritual reality? This article looks at John Owen's answer to this question: through the giving of revelation, the inspiration of Scripture, the authenticating of Scripture, the establishing of faith in Scripture, the interpreting of Scripture.
Idolatry is a reflection of the desire of fallen human nature to be lord of what one worships. This article explains.
Conscience is knowledge held in common with another, namely, God. It is a man's knowledge of himself as God knows him. This article discusses the role of the conscience within Puritanism. It reflects on the place of conscience among Puritans, their teaching about it, and how their understanding of conscience shaped their preaching.
Expository preaching is the preaching of the man who knows Holy Scripture to be the living Word of God, and whose aim in preaching is to show the hearers what the text is saying to them about God and about them. It is this kind of preaching that has fallen on hard times, but from Charles Simeon we can learn how to regain it. This article explains.
There is no way men and women can believe the biblical truth about grace without embracing what it presupposes. This article discusses four fundamental truths that grace presupposes. Without them, the truth of grace is not believed.
The judicial act of God pardoning sinners and declaring them righteous for Jesus's sake is justification. This article explains the relationship between judgement day and justification.
Through the fall into sin man is born under the guilt and power of sin. This article shows how Adam relates to all humans by virtue of his sin.
Through the voice of general revelation and conscience man has no excuse, but remains guilty of idolatry. How? This article explains.
Christians have the responsibility to personally read and interpret Scripture. This article offers five principles which will guard Christians from misinterpreting Scripture.
To understand the Puritan way of evangelism, one must understand how their practice of evangelism differs from the modern practice of it. This article shows that the difference lies in their doctrine of man and his state.
Knowing God's will and following his guidance should not be a superstitious exercise. It should be the result of the work of the Holy Spirit as he works renewal in the believer, through the Word, applying it to concrete life situations in the context of godly advice. In this way believers are able to have good discernment. This is what the article explains.
Through the resurrection of Christ, death and its terrors have been demolished. For this reason the Christian need not fear death because in death he goes to be with the Lord. This is what the article explains.
This article shows that in speaking about justification by faith, the Reformers addressed three things: the need for justification, the means to it, and the meaning of it. Then it shows how this view can be distorted.
There are mainly three questions facing the church about worship: In what sense are the Scriptures authoritative for Christian worship? What regulations are proper for Christian worship? What discipline is proper in connection with worship? The Puritans answered these questions by pointing to the essence of worship.
The biblical way of thinking about the atonement is to think of it as penal substitution. In arguing this point this article points to the nature of knowledge required to comprehend this. This kind of knowledge is faith knowledge that rests on God's Word. It explains the idea of substitution and how it relates to Christ death being penal.
Jesus' resurrection is essential to Christianity because it attests to Christ's victory over death, his righteousness, and his divine identity. This what the article explains.
This article show how the total obedience of Christ is essential for our salvation.
The only way to know God is through his self-revelation. This article argues that this self-revelation is what constitutes the Bible.
Predestination refers to God's eternal decision of particular sinners for salvation and eternal life. Let the article explain.
God's self-existence is the truth that asserts that God has always been there. He has no beginning or end. This article explains this truth.
Our paradigms of reality determine how we process informational data. It determines what we make of it (to speak in everyday terms), for processing data is essentially a matter of fitting the bits into our overall frame of reference. In this way paradigms become the pathway to understanding - if the paradigm is a good one, or to misunderstanding if it is not.
The purpose of this article on authority is threefold. In the first place it discusses the nature and excellence of authority in general, and the authority that historic Christianity has ascribed to the Creator in particular. Secondly, it points to some of the ways the Western world has turned from God's authority. Finally, it discusses how Christianity might be able to re-establish authority in the world today.