This essay attempts to explain the belief that the death of Christ on the cross had the character of penal substitution, and that it was by virtue of this fact that it brought salvation to mankind. First, the author clears up some questions of method. He then continues to explore what it means to call Christ's death substitutionary.
This article outlines the various views and theories concerning Christ's work on the cross: the ransom theory, the satisfaction theory, the moral influence theory, the governmental theory, and penal substitution. Though all have pieces of truth in them, the final view is the most thoroughly biblical.
This article responds to recent criticisms of the doctrine of penal substitution as atonement for human sin. The author's main focus is the publication of The Lost Message of Jesus by Steve Chalke and Alan Mann from a British perspective, and views expressed by Joel B. Green from an American perspective. He notes four main charges brought against penal substitution.
What is penal substitution? It is the doctrine that God gave himself in his Son, Jesus Christ, to suffer in man’s place the curse as the penalty for sin. This stands at the heart of the Christian gospel. The Introduction acquaints readers with more recent objections against this confession of God’s grace.
Nicole considers seven theories of atonement and evaluates each.
The biblical way of thinking about the atonement is to think of it as penal substitution. In arguing this point this article points to the nature of knowledge required to comprehend this. This kind of knowledge is faith knowledge that rests on God's Word. It explains the idea of substitution and how it relates to Christ death being penal.
Our contemporary preaching of the gospel message would be improved by making better use of the much neglected and misunderstood subject of divine judgment. The breadth of the biblical use of judgment is considered in this article and it is argued that judgment as a metaphor of atonement provides the wider context in which penal substitution should be understood. The metaphor of judgment can also be a means of coordinating disparate biblical images of the atonement.