This study considers two of the prepositions used in New Testament statements on the subject of the atonement to see what contribution they have to make. Four prepositions are used in the New Testament statements about the death of Christ, but only two are examined here, i. e. "for" (ἀντί) and "on behalf of/for the sake of/for the beneft of" (ὐπέρ).
How can heaven and earth be joined together when they are currently so separated? This article gives the answer: through the atonement of Jesus Christ. He fulfills all the recoverings that happened in the Old Testament sacrificial liturgy by becoming the covering himself. This article concludes with reflections on how this comes into the Christian life of forgiveness, based on 1 John 1:6-2:2.
The author refutes the theological claims of C. H. Dodd, who sees the concept of the wrath of God as having a diminished place in the Bible. The author finds that the wrath of God is an important part of the inspired Scriptures. Further, he finds this doctrine to be an essential aspect of the doctrine of God, of sin, of atonement, the love of God, of judgment, and of hell.
This writing seeks to find the relation between the wrath of God and the atonement. While God was expressing his wrathful and just punishment of man's sin on Christ, was his love excluded? The answer in this article says that it was not, but was being demonstrated in Christ's atonement for his people.
Bavinck discusses the views of supralapsarianism and infralapsarianism, which are all attempts to describe the order in which God made the decision to predestine man to salvation, permit the fall, and provide a mediator for the atonement of the elect. The author finds fault with both views and discusses an alternative way of viewing and studying God's decree.
The author speaks on the foreknowledge of God as it applies to the doctrine of atonement. The article rejects the assertion that God foreknew who would believe and therefore predestined such people to salvation. The author redefines the foreknowledge of God, understanding it in the context of the decree of God.
The article deals with the subject of how one should understand the extent of the atonement of Christ. The article first deals with how to understand the use of particular language in particular contexts. Secondly, it appeals to the hermeneutical rule that Scripture should interpret Scripture. Further, Scripture should be compared to Scripture so that similarities occasioned by the use of merely different words should be noted.
Did Christ offer himself up as a sacrifice for all people, or only for a limited number? The author replies that the atonement of Christ was sufficient to save the whole human race, but was efficient to save only the elect. The Arminians, however, argue that the atonement has made it possible for all men to cooperate with the divine grace, and thus come to salvation if they will believe. The author argues that if the Arminian view is right, then millions of those for whom Christ died have been lost, which means that his sacrifice could not save them.
In this article, the author puts forward a strong case for studying theological doctrines in such a way that each individual doctrine falls within a particular larger theological field. He thus proposes that the doctrine of the atonement should be defended as falling within the covenant of grace. In this regard, the gospel call is made to everyone outside, but the one who really calls, Jesus Christ, does so from within the covenant of grace.
In this review of the theology of Charles Finney, the author focuses on his doctrine of justification. He takes note of Finney’s strange teaching that justification is a governmental pardon and not a judiciary acquittal. There are also multiple conditions for justification, according to Finney, and not simply faith as the Protestants claim. His view of atonement undermines the centrality of the cross of Christ as the one single act of God in atoning for sin.
This article responds to recent criticisms of the doctrine of penal substitution as atonement for human sin. The author's main focus is the publication of The Lost Message of Jesus by Steve Chalke and Alan Mann from a British perspective, and views expressed by Joel B. Green from an American perspective. He notes four main charges brought against penal substitution.
This article discusses the extent of the atonement of Christ.
The article explains the atonement of Christ whereby he gave satisfaction for sin and restored a broken relationship.
Nicole argues for an understanding of the atonement as definite. He wants to argue the exact point at issue: the chief purpose of the Father in sending the Son and the chief intention of Christ in laying down his life in sacrifice. The author goes on to give the main arguments for his understanding of definite atonement, and to answer objections against his view.
This is a theological dictionary entry on different theories of the atonement.
This is a theological dictionary entry on the atonement.
This chapter is the conclusion to Morris's study on the atonement. Morris summarizes the major findings of the book.
The biblical way of thinking about the atonement is to think of it as penal substitution. In arguing this point this article points to the nature of knowledge required to comprehend this. This kind of knowledge is faith knowledge that rests on God's Word. It explains the idea of substitution and how it relates to Christ death being penal.
What did Christ accomplish for us by his active obedience and passive obedience? This article notes four things in answer to this question: Christ accomplished expiation, propitiation, reconciliation, and redemption. In the process, the author attempts to explain these terms and their individual meanings within the context of Christ's atonement.
Every individual on earth is faced daily with this one question: how will you stand before the living and the holy God? In this context, atonement is central to the teaching of Scripture.
This is the fifth article in a twelve part series on the topic of preaching Christ. Preaching the atonement of Christ should point people to the reality that God himself was responsible for the crucifixion. This was the way Christ was intended to die as our substitute. Christ's death provides reconciliation with God.
This article examines the claim that all Christians should enjoy perfect health based on Christ's work of atonement. The author shows that this claim fails to understand the purpose of Christ's miracles and is not supported by biblical history. Besides, this claim is disastrous for pastoral care and leads to folly. In saying this, this article confirms that God gives healing.
Looking at the doctrine of limited atonement, this article focuses on the role of the Triune God in working out atonement. The focus of this article is on the acts which were undertaken to accomplish atonement. The author speaks specifically about the intercession of Christ, showing that Christ intercedes for the elect only.
Looking at the doctrine of limited atonement, this article focuses on the role of the Triune God in working out atonement. The focus of this article is on the acts which were undertaken to accomplish atonement. The author speaks specifically about the act of oblation; namely, the sacrifice of Christ on the cross.
Looking at the doctrine of limited atonement, this article focuses on the role of the Triune God in working out atonement. The focus of this article is on the role of God the Father. The author discusses the way in which the Father was involved in the coming of Christ as Saviour and Mediator, with emphasis given to the obedience of the Son to the Father and the intercessory work of the Son.
Looking at the doctrine of limited atonement, this article focuses on the role of the Triune God in working out atonement. The focus of this article is on the role of God the Father. The author discusses the way in which the Father was involved in the coming of Christ as Saviour and Mediator, with emphasis given to the wrath of the Father on the Son and the obedience of the Son to the Father.
Looking at the doctrine of limited atonement, this article focuses on the role of the Triune God in working out atonement. The focus of this article is on the role of God the Father. The author discusses the way in which the Father was involved in the coming of Christ as Saviour and Mediator, with emphasis on the economy of the covenants - a covenant between the Father and Son.
Our contemporary preaching of the gospel message would be improved by making better use of the much neglected and misunderstood subject of divine judgment. The breadth of the biblical use of judgment is considered in this article and it is argued that judgment as a metaphor of atonement provides the wider context in which penal substitution should be understood. The metaphor of judgment can also be a means of coordinating disparate biblical images of the atonement.
The question of Anselm, "Why did God become man?" is not answered in a uniform way by Evangelical Christians. There used to be more of a consensus, more so than there is today. What did the atonement actually accomplish? There are basically four views held by Protestants.