Chapter 1 traces the work of the Holy Spirit empowering the leaders of Israel in the Old Testament. Leaders noted are Joseph (Genesis 39:1ff.), Bezalel (Exodus 35:1–39:43), Moses and the seventy elders (Numbers 11:1–35), Joshua (Numbers 27:15–23), Othniel, Gideon, Jephthah, and Samson (Judges 3:1–16:31), Saul (1 Samuel 9:1–16:23), and David (1 Chronicles).
One way of seeking communication from the gods of the Canaanites was by ecstatic frenzy. Some scholars believe that Israel learned it from the Canaanites and made it a part of their service. They believe that Israel's former prophets were ecstatics. Evidence is sought in the Old Testament especially from three passages: Numbers 11:25-29, 1 Samuel 10:1-13, and 1 Samuel 19:18-24.