Lewis reflects upon what he calls the new spirituality found in many Western societies and churches. It is a spirituality build on vision and experience rather than a specific doctrine or belief system. He explores its roots, meaning, and impact before comparing and contrasting it with Christian spirituality.
Existentialism's view of the individual is sometimes claimed to be similar to the views of Augustine. In this essay Lewis evaluates such claims by comparing the thought of Augustine with that of contemporary existentialists. Lewis introduces Paul Tillich's distinctions between an existential point of view, an existential philosophy, and an existential attitude (involvement).