To what does the breastplate of righteousness in Ephesians 6:14 refer? This study includes a brief survey of Paul’s usage of spiritual armor in other epistles and an examination of the background of spiritual armor found in Isaiah. The author concludes that the breastplate is ethical, consisting of virtues that reflect Christ.
This study explores the possibility that Paul created the so-called hymnic material he is using in Ephesians 5:14. Supporting this thesis is a study of the way that the passages from Isaiah have been conflated in Ephesians 5 and have influenced the broader contours of Ephesians. The authors first look at the Old Testament text behind the citation and then demonstrates how Paul contextually appropriates the texts for his purposes.
How should the book of Isaiah be dated? Walton presents new observations to aid the dating of Isaiah.