This article is the last of a four-part series on the life of Klaas Schilder. It offers some critical remarks on the theologian.
What is the relationship between the theology of the Reformation and Post-Reformation Reformed Theology? Did the scholastic methodology of the post-Reformation period change the content of the Reformation theology? Richard Muller argues that they are in essential agreement. The agreement lies primarily in the christological focus.
Who was Abraham Kuyper? This article surveys his life, with a focus on his key theological themes as well as his legacy for the church today.
This article is a biography of William of Orange. Focus is given to his role in fighting for Calvinism in the Low Lands in the Netherlands.
This article considers Herman Bavinck and his understanding of the Christian life. What lay at the heart of his understanding was the imitation of Christ. His life and writings reveal this, as the article demonstrates.
Who was Abraham Kuyper? This article gives a biography of the man.
Is the theology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer orthodox? This article offers some cautionary remarks.
This article is a biography of the life of George Whitefield.
William Wilberforce should serve as a model of determination. He shows us what it means to persevere for God's work.
In striving against the Remonstrants - the heirs of Arminian heresy - the synod that met in Dordrecht in 1618/19 was fighting for church unity. False doctrine divides the church. The synod understood that church unity can only be attained on the basis of the truth. This truth must be embraced and confessed by the true church.
Does God desire to save everyone? Not all the leaders of the Secession of 1834 were in total agreement over this question. This question lies behind the teaching of the well-meant offer of the gospel. Looking at the historical development of this teaching, this article traces it back to some of the leaders of the Secession.
This article looks at the character of the Secession of 1834 and the lessons we can learn from this piece of history.
This article discusses various factors which led up to the Secession of 1834 in the Netherlands. The Dutch Reformed Church became a state church and rejected the Church Order of Dordt and the binding authority of the creeds. The author also looks at the leading individuals involved in the Secession and their persecution.
There is nothing so painful to Christians as witnessing the separation of Christ church. This author maintains, however, that sometimes separation is the way to obey Christ. This article looks at the influence of rationalism, biblical criticism and the church and state relationship in the Netherlands leading up to the Secession of 1834.
Pietism began as a reaction to highly intellectualized orthodoxy common in some churches in the decades following the Reformation. This article gives some reflections on its main leaders: Johann Arndt, Philip Jacob Spener, Auguste Hermann Francke, and Count Nicolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf. The author summarizes the teaching of pietism, showing that pietism moved from emphasizing the authority of scripture to emphasizing experience.
Looking at the history of the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravians, this article shows how this movement began under the influence of Jan Hus and the leadership of Nicholas Louis von Zinzendorf. The Moravian movement left a great heritage for the church, especially in the areas of communal prayer and zeal for mission work.
The Protestant Reformation was a blessing to God's church, since it brought in freedom and liberty for the individual to read and interpret Scripture. However, many reactions to the Potestant Reformation also arose. This article on church history focuses on the rise of rationalism, as well as the teachings of John Wesley and Methodism.
There are special times when God raises men of such outstanding ability and conviction that their work leaves an indelible mark on subsequent history. This article is about Abraham Kuyper. The author discusses his early life, Kuyper as writer and journalist, as church reformer, as theologian and as politician.
How ought a Christian to regard his emotions? The history of theology has answered that variously. In 1746, Jonathan Edwards published A Treatise on the Religious Affections, which is a biblical discussion of the matter, and a worthwhile read especially in today's discussions over religious experiences. This article offers a survey of the work.
This article is a biography of William III of Orange.
What makes a revival? Jonathan Edwards gave a biblical reflection of this. However, to understand the answer of Edwards, we must understand the man himself, his understanding of God and how God works to reveal his glory. It is the view of God that shaped Edwards's understanding of revival. The article discusses this while pointing to crucial elements that constitute a revival.
This article gives a biography of the life of Richard Baxter. Focus is given to his early life and ministry in Kidderminster.
This article is about Andrew Melville, born 1545, a Scottish Reformer.
This article is about Alexander Henderson, born about 1583, a Scottish Reformer.
What is Sandemanianism? Where did it come from? This article addresses these questions, touching on aspects such as its leadership under such men as Robert Sandeman, and those who countered its teachings such as Andrew Fuller. One main tenet of this movement was a focus on intellectual assent as a proof of faith rather than any emotional attachment to faith.
This article considers the life of the Dutch theologian, Herman Bavinck.
This article gives a biography of Gerhard Tersteegen with a focus on the legacy of hymns he left behind.
This essay examines the contrast in Scottish and American church history from the 1730s to the 1840s, and focuses on the difference in theological development. The author argues that the study of the relationship between formal religious thought and its social, political, and intellectual contexts shows why theology developed differently in the two regions during this period.
This first of a two-part series on the life and ministry of Charles Spurgeon focuses especially on his earlier days as a preacher.
Philosophical views exert a strong influence on theology. This paper introduces themes from the philosophy of Hegel in contemporary German theology. Illustrations are given from the theology of Hans Kung, W. Pannenberg, Karl Barth, and K. Rahner. The author considers the appropriateness of incorporating thoughts from Hegel's philosophy in theology.
The Introduction is a reminder of the historic Synod Utrecht of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands in 1905 and the contributions of Abraham Kuyper and Herman Bavinck’s theology to the debates at that time. Bavinck’s book on calling and regeneration is placed in its historic and theological context.
This book discusses the history of the Bala Ministers’ Conference in Wales from its inception until recent years, and the role played by Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The author critically examines this history, drawing conclusions regarding the relationship between the Word and Spirit in evangelism. This section outlines the background behind the establishment of the Ministers' Conference in 1955.
What is the relation between revelation and history? The article indicates how Lessing responded to the near-veneration of the Bible by the Protestantism of the eighteenth century in Germany time by placing a great emphasis on ethics. Particular attention is given to Lessing's controversy with Goeze.
This is the second of a two-part series on the life and ministry of Charles Spurgeon.
How does Jurgen Moltmann understand the resurrection of man and the resurrection of Jesus Christ in particular? His use of the word "resurrection" diverges significantly from the common understanding of the term. The social character of Moltmann's use of this symbol is vital to a proper understanding of his contribution.
This article gives a short biography of Matthew Henry.
In 1966, Martyn Lloyd-Jones made a public appeal for unity among evangelicals through the pursuit of a fellowship of evangelical churches. This book discusses Lloyd-Jones' appeal for unity, and what this appeal means for churches today. In this chapter, the author discusses how this appeal was made in the context of a doctrinally mixed denomination.
This article engages with criticisms made by Bonhoeffer towards Karl Barth's theology of "Positivism of Revelation." In the analysis, it is also evident that there is need to properly understand the meaning of Bonhoeffer's expression, which can only be done through the careful study of his writings.
In the early 1960s Rudolf Bultmann was arguably the most influential theologian in Germany. It is imperative to attempt to understand Bultmann's theology. This paper is such an attempt. It focuses on understanding the paradox at the heart of Bultmann's theology, i.e., the place where God acts is in the sphere of human existence. How should we understand this language of the "act of God"?
The role of the Confessing Church in Germany during the Nazis' rise to power constitutes one of the most fascinating phenomena in modern church history. Its development and partial disintegration raise crucial issues for the church in every era. The lessons to be learnt are relevant far beyond the boundaries of Germany. This article first presents a brief outline of the history of the Confessing Church and its struggle with the evils of National Socialism.