In this article, the author puts forward a strong case for studying theological doctrines in such a way that each individual doctrine falls within a particular larger theological field. He thus proposes that the doctrine of the atonement should be defended as falling within the covenant of grace. In this regard, the gospel call is made to everyone outside, but the one who really calls, Jesus Christ, does so from within the covenant of grace.
What does it mean that believers rely on Christ as their advocate and atoning sacrifice? This article responds to this question, explaining that Christ is the one who has turned away the wrath of God against the believer. In the rest of their lives, believers live by acknowledging their dependence on God's grace demonstrated in Christ.
What did Christ accomplish for us by his active obedience and passive obedience? This article notes four things in answer to this question: Christ accomplished expiation, propitiation, reconciliation, and redemption. In the process, the author attempts to explain these terms and their individual meanings within the context of Christ's atonement.
This is a theological dictionary entry on different theories of the atonement.
This is a theological dictionary entry on the atonement.
This article outlines the various views and theories concerning Christ's work on the cross: the ransom theory, the satisfaction theory, the moral influence theory, the governmental theory, and penal substitution. Though all have pieces of truth in them, the final view is the most thoroughly biblical.
This article highlights ten key notes about the doctrine of definite atonement.
This chapter is the conclusion to Morris's study on the atonement. Morris summarizes the major findings of the book.
The biblical way of thinking about the atonement is to think of it as penal substitution. In arguing this point this article points to the nature of knowledge required to comprehend this. This kind of knowledge is faith knowledge that rests on God's Word. It explains the idea of substitution and how it relates to Christ death being penal.
Why do you value God’s forgiveness? Or why do you value eternal life? Have you ever considered asking why a person would want to have eternal life? Why would people want to live forever? Does God feature in how we think about these things? This article looks at John 17:3 and how this text should shape our perspective on forgiveness and eternal life.
This article dwells on the redemption of Christ, and emphasizes the particularity of Christ's redemption (the Reformed view) as opposed to the Arminian understanding that Christ died to make salvation possible for man. Spurgeon then goes on to elaborate on the greatness of this redemption when considering the heinousness of the guilt of the saved, the sternness of divine justice, the nature of the sacrificial price Christ paid, and the vast number of those for whom this redemption was made.
What was the Amyraut controversy? This controversy is associated with teachings on universal grace that flared up in the Reformed churches of the seventeenth century. Nicole provides a brief survey of the major developments in this controversy and follows this up with a summary of the most important arguments advanced by both sides.
Nicole argues for an understanding of the atonement as definite. He wants to argue the exact point at issue: the chief purpose of the Father in sending the Son and the chief intention of Christ in laying down his life in sacrifice. The author goes on to give the main arguments for his understanding of definite atonement, and to answer objections against his view.
How can heaven and earth be joined together when they are currently so separated? This article gives the answer: through the atonement of Jesus Christ. He fulfills all the recoverings that happened in the Old Testament sacrificial liturgy by becoming the covering himself. This article concludes with reflections on how this comes into the Christian life of forgiveness, based on 1 John 1:6-2:2.
It has been argued that it was unjust of God to make Christ our substitute, that this was some sort of divine child abuse. This article shows that is far from so. It offers four reasons why our debt had to be paid by Christ.
This article examines the doctrine of the atonement of Christ as a teaching that has received a lot of attention and has been the subject of much debate in the past. At issue in this article is the Reformed claim that Christ died for only the elect (limited atonement). This is opposed by those who claim that this would mean a limiting of the power or effect of Christ's atonement. The author deals with this issue on the basis of scriptural arguments raised from both sides of the debate.
The article deals with the doctrine of limited atonement. The main texts considered include Jesus' high-priestly prayer in John 17:1-13 and the angel Gabriel's announcement of the birth of Christ in Matthew 1:21. The author shows that Christ did not die on the cross for every man that ever lived but for the specific people chosen by God to believe and enjoy the benefits of salvation. This teaching also relates to the teaching of predestination.
The article deals with the subject of how one should understand the extent of the atonement of Christ. The article first deals with how to understand the use of particular language in particular contexts. Secondly, it appeals to the hermeneutical rule that Scripture should interpret Scripture. Further, Scripture should be compared to Scripture so that similarities occasioned by the use of merely different words should be noted.
What is penal substitution? It is the doctrine that God gave himself in his Son, Jesus Christ, to suffer in man’s place the curse as the penalty for sin. This stands at the heart of the Christian gospel. The Introduction acquaints readers with more recent objections against this confession of God’s grace.
Nicole considers seven theories of atonement and evaluates each.
This study considers two of the prepositions used in New Testament statements on the subject of the atonement to see what contribution they have to make. Four prepositions are used in the New Testament statements about the death of Christ, but only two are examined here, i. e. "for" (ἀντί) and "on behalf of/for the sake of/for the beneft of" (ὐπέρ).
This essay attempts to explain the belief that the death of Christ on the cross had the character of penal substitution, and that it was by virtue of this fact that it brought salvation to mankind. First, the author clears up some questions of method. He then continues to explore what it means to call Christ's death substitutionary.
The author argues that while the sacrifice of Christ accomplished the full redemption of all the elect, there are certain benefits that come to sinners in general because of that sacrifice. God may show pity to those whom he is determined not to save. While God purposely designed Christ's sacrifice for the redemption of all whom he intended to save, he yet holds forth the expiation of Christ to the whole world as a demonstration of his kindness.
This article responds to recent criticisms of the doctrine of penal substitution as atonement for human sin. The author's main focus is the publication of The Lost Message of Jesus by Steve Chalke and Alan Mann from a British perspective, and views expressed by Joel B. Green from an American perspective. He notes four main charges brought against penal substitution.
This article discusses the extent of the atonement of Christ.