This essay wants to demonstrate that the verb "pasah" in Exodus 12 should not be translated as "pass over" but "hover over." This image is the same as Genesis 1:2 where the metaphor is used to compare the Creator-Spirit to a bird hovering over the deep-and-darkness. Kline provides some background for the use of avian imagery for God and his angels.
The history of the ancient Near East is a very important tool to help Bible students to better understand what they read. This article wants to give some illustrations of what can be learned from history to better understand the Bible. It takes a look at the Assyrians and their neighbours, Ahab, Jehu, Jeroboam II, Jehoash, Joram, etc.
When we consider the relationship between Ugaritic literature and the Old Testament, we are to make a comparison between different genres of literature. It has become customary in modern scholarship to hold that Habakkuk 3 was influenced by Ugaritic poetry. This article questions whether this pays necessary attention to the difference in their literary genre.
Citing some similarities between the book of Exodus and the Egyptian Tale of Sinuhe, some theologians have entertained the thought that Exodus is simply a literary work of art much along the lines of the tale of Sinuhe. The author disputes this thinking, citing both similarities and important differences between the two narratives.
This paper demonstrates the antiquity of certain concepts found in the Old Testament. It indicates the antiquity and objective reality of certain concepts that were part of the common intellectual, religious and technical heritage of the Old Testament and ancient Near East. Most of the comparative material is taken from Egypt.
This article suggests that comparative studies, founded upon archaeological and linguistic evidence, constitute the most fruitful field for biblical research. The purpose in this article is to demonstrate with a particular example—the golden calves and the Egyptian concept of deity—the value of this approach for the understanding of the Bible.
This article considers the Babylonian version of the creation account. It previews the battle of the gods, the flow of the Euphrates and the Tigris through Tiamut's eyes. The author also observes from the account that gods were created, and that man was created to save the gods from working. It also shows the superiority of the Genesis record.
This article draws attention to the fact that it is no longer possible to describe Nuzi customs as customs of Hur simply on the basis that they show some divergence from better-known Mesopotamian practices, and because there was considerable influence of Hur at Nuzi. In Near Eastern Studies there is an increasing awareness that the similarities between Nuzi and other Mesopotamian text groups are, in fact, greater than was formerly supposed.
What are the extra-biblical sources for the history of Israel? There is an Assyrian text that offers an account of dealings with Judah, a text renowned since the beginning of Assyriology. That text is Sennacherib's report of his attack on Judah and Jerusalem during the reign of King Hezekiah. This article examines mainly this text.
This article makes a case for the possibility of written literature and thus the skill and knowledge of writing existing in Palestine from at least the tenth century BC onward.
The aim of this article is to examine the reasons why theodicy, as we understand the term today, is virtually absent from ancient Mesopotamian literature. The purpose is to discover what factors in that culture led to the exclusion of theodicy and the idea of innocent suffering from their worldview and literature.
The discoveries at Tell Mardikh have significance for Biblical Studies. The author introduces these discoveries.
A prism now in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England, popularly known as the Sumerian King List, is held to have been compiled from as many as fifteen different texts. This King List traces the rulers of certain Sumerian cities in succession. It is of great value because it contains some very old traditions and gives an important chronological framework for the antediluvian period of the ancient Near East.
How does information about building practices from the ancient Near East support an interpretation of the book of Ezekiel? Peterson's thesis is that Ezekiel deliberately omits some key human elements from ANE temple-building practices in his temple vision of Ezekiel 40:1-Ezekiel 43:11, in an effort to help Israel to realize the nature of their sin.