This article evaluates from a biblical perspective the arguments against Adam as a historical person. In doing so, it considers the relationship between Scripture and science, as well as the biblical relationship between Adam and Christ.
Gaffin reflects in Chapter 11 on John Calvin’s view of justification and union with Christ in Book 3 of his Institutes of the Christian Religion. Gaffin gives a brief overview of the treatment of justification in successive editions of the Institutes from 1536 to 1559. Next, he considers what Calvin mean by the “double grace” (duplex gratia) that believers receive by union with Christ.
The author confronts the influence of the New Perspective on Paul. Gaffin’s controlling question throughout concerns Paul’s understanding of how the individual receives salvation. What does the application of salvation to sinners involve for Paul? Is a distinction between salvation accomplished (historia salutis) and salvation applied (ordo salutis) present in his preaching?
In this essay Gaffin concentrates on the inherent vigour of Reformed systematic theology and how best to preserve and nurture its strengths. He first addresses the matter of Reformed systematic theology’s use of its own exegetical tradition given in the discipline of biblical theology as developed by Geerhardus Vos. His emphasis is on the task of all exegesis of Scripture to be redemptive-historical.
Was Adam a true historical human being, from whom all mankind descended? This question is posed as a result of scientific findings. Looking at Romans 5:12-19 and 1 Corinthians 15:21-22, the author answers this question by showing that failure to accept the historicity of Adam alters the biblical teaching on sin and salvation.
What is true spirituality? True spirituality can only be found by listening to the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit speaks through His word, the Bible. Therefore, true spirituality should not be sought through a repetition of Pentecost. Pentecost should be understood in line with Christ's work; it cannot be repeated.