Gaffin reflects in Chapter 11 on John Calvin’s view of justification and union with Christ in Book 3 of his Institutes of the Christian Religion. Gaffin gives a brief overview of the treatment of justification in successive editions of the Institutes from 1536 to 1559. Next, he considers what Calvin mean by the “double grace” (duplex gratia) that believers receive by union with Christ. This twofold grace consists of justification and sanctification. He argues that for Calvin this righteousness is “reckoned” and being “imputed” to believers. We can say that for Calvin, “participatio Christi” is prior to imputation, and imputation prior to judgment.
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