This article considers the incarnation of the Lord Jesus, particularly the scandal of the virgin conception and birth, and how God does not always do things the way we think he should.
This article utters five cautions to consider when discussing what the Bible teaches on gender.
This article provides a bibliography on relevant resources for the study of literature from the intertestamental period, which is useful for an understanding of the background to the New Testament. Specific attention is given to the Dead Sea Scrolls, but also authors like Philo and Josephus, as well as rabbinic literature and the Talmud.
Köstenberger exegetes John 3:16 within its original historical setting, its place within John’s narrative, and its theological context.
In the Introduction Köstenberger wants to challenge Evangelicalism on the direction it needs to take on the doctrine of Scripture. He reviews some of the presidential speeches of the Evangelical Theological Society to give an overview of the views held in the past by the movement and theological society.
This essay begins with a survey of the Old Testament background to the New Testament teaching on what it means to be filled with the Spirit. It next offers a detailed study of all the references in the New Testament to a filling with the Holy Spirit or a person being full of the Spirit. Detailed attention is given to Ephesians 5:18 and the relevant passages in the book of Acts.
The role of women in the church, and in particular the issue of the ordination of women, is a worldwide discussion point. Yet the issue of women’s roles in the church and society is not a new one. This makes it all the more remarkable that the progressive reading of biblical texts such as 1 Timothy 2:9-15 is a comparatively recent phenomenon.
In a previous article all relevant references to tithing in Scripture were discussed and it was concluded that the continuation of a tithing requirement can not be adequately supported by the exegesis of individual texts. In the present essay the authors assess the applicability of tithing in light of pertinent systematic issues.
This article address the question whether tithing, that is, giving ten percent of one’s income, is obligatory for Christians. This is the first in a series of two articles investigating this question by studying all references to tithing in Scripture. The discussion commences with Old Testament references to tithing prior to the giving of the Mosaic Law, the Mosaic Law itself and the historical and prophetic books, notably Malachi 3:8. This is followed by a close reading of the three major New Testament passages on tithing, i.e.
The essay seek to demonstrate the following: (1) The Gospel of John's mission theology is an integral part of his presentation of Father, Son, and Spirit; and (2) rather than John’s mission theology being a function of his Trinitarian theology, the converse is actually the case: John’s presentation of Father, Son,and Spirit is a function of his mission theology.
North American egalitarianism has developed a distinct hermeneutic of its own with regard to its interpretation of gender-related passages in Scripture. It is the purpose of this article to provide a response to the hermeneutical issues raised in chapters by Roger Nicole and Gordon Fee in the book "Discovering Biblical Equality".
The syntax of 1 Timothy 2:12 has been the subject of serious scholarly discussion in recent years. Increasingly, It has become clear that before one can apply this important passage on women's roles in the church, one must first determine what it means. In this quest for the meaning of 1 Tim 2:12, the proper understanding of the passage's syntax has had a very important place, especially since consensus on the meaning of the rare word "authentein" has proved elusive.
It is hard to imagine a more profound question than "What is truth?" The world’s greatest philosophers and theologians has been driven by the quest for truth. It is also the question Pilate asked Jesus. It is probable that Pilate’s question has several layers of meaning, intriguing commentators over the centuries. This pays tribute not so much to Pilate but to the apostle John who wove the question into the fabric of his Gospel concerning Jesus, the Christ and Son of God.
The Epistle to the Hebrews reflects the use of comparatives more frequently than any other writing in the New Testament. Twenty-eight uses of comparative adjectives combine with seventeen uses of comparative adverbs for a total of forty-five occurrences of comparatives. This is a reflection of the writer‘s purpose in comparing the old covenant with the new covenant and the glory of Christ.
In the recent past several major commentaries and monographs on the Pastoral Epistles have been published. This article ask what light these recent works have shed on the study of this group of writings. The focus is on several of the major hermeneutical and exegetical challenges with which the modern interpreter is confronted in the study of the Pastoral Epistles.
Who is the “Israel of God” in Galatians 6:16? The understanding of this passage has an important bearing on the question of the relationship between Israel and the church. Rather than viewing the verse through a pre-existing systematic-theological grid, Paul’s reference to the “Israel of God” ought to be studied first and foremost in the context of the entire epistle. Special attention need to be given to his anti-Judaizing polemic.
The field of Jewish literature can be difficult to the non-specialist. Knowing where to go for texts, translations, concordances, and bibliography is a great help. Even seasoned researchers more familiar with these materials often fail to take advantage of the best critical texts, translations, and helps currently available.
It is important to have clarity on the place of mission in the theology of the New Testament? Kostenberger first clarifies the nature of mission, New Testament theology and Scripture. He then assesses the significance of mission within the scope of the New Testaments message as a whole. A survey is presented of the New Testament theologies by Rudolf Bultmann, George Ladd,and N. T.
During the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing awareness of the importance of hermeneutical procedure in interpreting the gender passages in the New Testament. Robert Johnston attributes the differences in approach regarding the role of women in the church taken by Christians to "different hermeneutics," calling the study of women's roles a "test case" of evangelical interpretation.
Unaware of the origins of some of these thoughts, many pastors and church members may find themselves increasingly confronted with ideas like “story preaching” or “reading the Bible as literature.” Even though it may seem harmless at first, these phrases may in fact conceal trends of which the unsuspecting pastor, churchgoer, or Bible student may not be aware.
This study aims to provide a corrective to the current debate regarding the historical Jesus by studying the Gospel of John’s presentation of Jesus as a teacher. The argument is not that this is the major, or even a major aspect of John's teaching on Christ. Rather, John reflects the common perception of Jesus among his contemporaries, friends and foes alike: that Jesus was, perhaps more, but certainly no less, than a rabbi.
This is a short article suggesting a translation of 2 Corinthians 5:20 which can be an improvement on most of the well-known English translations and commentaries.
This article offers a detailed exegesis on 1 Timothy 2:15.
The statement of the apostle Paul in 1 Timothy 2:15 has mystified Bible readers as well as Christian scholars for centuries. In what sense can a woman be "saved" by bearing children? What is so virtuous about bearing children that it could become the cause of women's salvation? What about single women or married women who do not or cannot have children? Even apart from these questions, the apostle sounds sexist and out of date in our modern era. How should we understand this passage, and how are we to apply it?
The following article is a comparative study of the translation of the Greek words anthrōpos ("man," "human being") and anēr ("man"). The IBS made a decision to forego the development of an "Inclusive Language Edition" of the NIV in the United States. At the time of writing the article, the UK edition was still available.
Christian mission currently appears to be suffering from an acute identity crisis. This crisis has to do with at least two major factors: the increasing interdisciplinary nature of missiology and the rapid pace of change in the world around us. Each of these has significant implications for the church’s missionary task. Few would oppose in principle the efforts made to draw upon the valid findings of the various social sciences.
The importance of signs in the Gospel of John is generally acknowledged. However, there is no treatment of the exact number and identity of the Johannine signs. For important reasons such a work, however, is needed. While six Johannine signs are commonly acknowledged, there is no agreement regarding possible other signs in John's Gospel. Through an exploration of the alternative proposals, greater clarity, if not consensus, could be achieved.
The present essay links the “greater works” passage in John 14:12 with other passages in John’s Gospel with similar wording or similar theological or terminological content. After a brief survey of the history of interpretation of the reference to believers’ “greater works” in John, an effort is made to draw implications from the present study’s findings for the self-understanding and practice of the contemporary church’s task and mission.
The Roman Catholic church maintains that the celibacy requirement for all its priests is essentially of apostolic origin. It was according to this view therefore binding on priests from early church history. If this claim of an apostolic origin for the Roman Catholic celibacy requirement can be refuted, it seems as if celibacy is left without adequate foundation. The question is not whether or not the Roman Catholic church will change the requirement of celibacy.
Ephesians 5:22–33 is an important passage in debates on headship and submission in marriage. An important aspect of this passage that has not received the attention it deserves, however, is the reference to a “great mystery” (Ephesians 5:32). The term "mystery" occurs consistently throughout Ephesians. An understanding of Paul’s use of the term can help in the understanding of marriage according to Ephesians 5:22–33.