A proof-text used for the doctrine of eternal torment in hell is Revelation 14:11. Bowles examines this text and argues for a new interpretation, suggesting that the traditional reading of this verse misses much. Thus, in contrast to the traditionally accepted viewpoint on this text, the author argues that God will bring his enemies to judgment, with absolute destruction and extinction as the result.
In Dispensationalist theology it is traditionally argued that “Babylon” in Revelation 14, Revelation 17, and Revelation 18 is a symbol indicating some form of a re-established Rome. This view is built on a reading of the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah in such a way that the rebuilding of the city and empire of Babylonia should be expected in the eschaton.