Does the Old Testament teach anything on economic matters like ownership and property? Kaiser examines the case some have made for a duality of the material and spiritual world. He then examines themes related to property, theft, land, and Jubilee. The stewardship responsibilities attributed to human beings are noted.
Goudzwaard "...contrasts the concern of modern economic analysis with outcomes measured in terms of economic growth and income per capita, with the emphases of the Old Testament economy for the right treatment of the inputs to the productive process, especially land and labour" (as quoted in Donald Hay, Christianity and the Culture of Economics, 9).