The apostle Paul uses the phrase "refresh the heart" some four times. This article wants to look at the use of the verb "anapauō" (with various meanings) in particular where it is combined with "pneuma" ("spirit") or "splanchna" ("bosom") in ancient Greek literary and non-literary sources. It concludes that Paul's use of the complete phrase (1 Corinthians 16:18, 2 Corinthians 7:13, Philemon 7, and Philemon 20) may have been a unique usage.
This essay makes a case for identifying the "offender" in 2 Corinthians 2:5 and 2 Corinthians 7:12 with the sinner of 1 Corinthians 5. The contacts between Paul and the Corinthians in the period between the writing of 1 and 2 Corinthians is also set out. Kruse considers the possibility that the offence was most likely committed during this period.
This is a Bible study on 2 Corinthians 7.