There are a number of instances in the Old Testament where "elohim" (“God, god”) is accurately translated by the plural (“gods”). Some instances are used of an Israelite divine assembly or divine council under the authority of Yahweh (Psalm 82:1). This raises the question whether the divine plural in the Old Testament is a demonstration of an evolution in the religion of Israel from polytheism to monotheism. The question derives not only from critical scholarship that is considered methodologically suspect; the text of the Hebrew Bible and archaeological discoveries in ancient Syria and Canaan lead to the question. This study wants to focus on the text of the Old Testament in the light of assumptions brought to the text when it is read. Arguments based on flawed presuppositions brought to a term like "elohim" and passages like Deuteronomy 32:8–9 and Psalm 82 are critically evaluated.
Source: Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament, 2012. 24 pages.