Lalleman argues that the idea of creation can already be found in Jeremiah. Jeremiah 4-Jeremiah 5 has parallels in Genesis 1-2 as well as in Jeremiah 33. She believes that there is insufficient ground to assume that Jeremiah 33 represents a post-Jeremiah development. Jeremiah uses also creation as a framework for his proclamation of judgment and doom.
Did the Old Testament make use of imagery found in other ancient Near Eastern texts and portray creation as God’s victory over, and transformation of chaos. The article indicates that this understanding is often associated with the expression "tohu wabohu" (Hebr. in Gen. 1:2), translated as"formless and empty," and that many interpretations of Genesis 1:1-2 imply that this chaos existed before God began his work as Creator.