In John 6:69, Peter confesses Jesus as "the Holy One of God." Scholarly opinion on the meaning of the Holy One of God is deeply divided. The most common solution is that the title simply means "Messiah." This article argues against such a position and suggests instead that the primary meaning of the title is that of "representation" or "agency." In Mark and Luke, it is an agency of judgment on the demons.
Looking at Matthew 16:18, this article looks at the significance of Jesus changing Simon's name to Peter. This renaming had a significant meaning, like all other renamings in the Bible. However, its significance is not in the way that the Roman Catholic Church claims, which maintains that Peter was the first pope. This interpretation lacks evidence from scripture.