This essay wants to demonstrate that the verb "pasah" in Exodus 12 should not be translated as "pass over" but "hover over." This image is the same as Genesis 1:2 where the metaphor is used to compare the Creator-Spirit to a bird hovering over the deep-and-darkness. Kline provides some background for the use of avian imagery for God and his angels.
Romans 9:17-18 has been a key text throughout church history for debates concerning predestination, reprobation, and free will. How should we understand the hardening of Pharaoh's heart? Beale attempts to reflect on these issues through an exegesis of each hardening passage in Exodus 4 to Exodus 14. Only brief comment is made about Romans 9 at the conclusion of the discussion.
Ferris considers the function and meaning of Exodus 16:1-10 within its wider context