Romans 9:17-18 has been a key text throughout church history for debates concerning predestination, reprobation, and free will. How should we understand the hardening of Pharaoh's heart? Beale attempts to reflect on these issues through an exegesis of each hardening passage in Exodus 4 to Exodus 14. Only brief comment is made about Romans 9 at the conclusion of the discussion.
When did the exodus take place? There are two theories: an early date and a late date. In answering this question this article looks first at the date of the conquest and the burning of Jericho, Ai, Hazor. After examining the archaeological claim for a later date based on Palestinian artifacts, the article concludes that such a claim has no grounds.